The Life of the Believer as Self-Sacrifice for God—Romans 12:1-2 (PART ONE)

     In the following weeks (there might be a break at one point as we are moving back to Germany) I would like to write about Romans 12 and Paul’s moral reasoning presented in that passage. This is part of my Master’s thesis which needed to be cut out.
     As always I hope that these posts will not be for pure intellectual work-outs, but that through it God’s transforming power will become reality to the reader.
     With that being said, let us now move into the subject at hand.

Part ONE: Introduction
     The shift from indicative to imperative is indicated by Paul’s language in v. 1 where the apostle states: parakalō oun(παρακαλῶοὖν).[i] This is the first out of four (so also in 12:8; 15:30; 16:17) uses of the word parakaleō (παρακαλέω) in Romans.[ii] The verb occurs 109 times in the NT with 54 occurrences in Paul—the noun occurs 29 times with 20 in the Pauline corpus.[iii] It is defined as “to urge strongly, appeal to, urge, exhort, encourage” (BDAG 765; 2). Interestingly we see that “[i]n most instances [in the Pauline corpus] the persuasive tone of παρακαλέω contains undeniable echoes of the message of salvation.”[iv] It is with this word that Paul comes to the ethical instruction of his letter.[v] Ernst Käsemann insightfully states:

Everything in the passage is oriented round a theme on which emphasis is placed as early as vv. 1f. It embraces the total action both of the individual Christian and of the Christian community and sets the parenesis within a firm theological framework: the theme of ‘spiritual worship’ through the offering-up of the bodies of the Christians describes what it means to stand under the righteousness of God with that simplicity which is the mark of the truly great conception.[vi]

     The oun (οὖν) has full inferential force[vii]and looks back to the entire letter, all theology—which is not dissected from practical concerns!—discussed in chs. 1-11 have implications for the believer.[viii]Here “Christians ethics are theologically motivated” or said differently “the Christian’s obedience is his response to what God has done for him in Christ, the expression of his gratitude.”[ix]In 12:1-2[x]Paul reverses certain aspects written in 1:18-32 as well as develops themes from chs. 6-8.[xi] 

     In contrast to 1:18-32 Christians are to present their bodies to God and no longer “dishonor” them (1:24). Whereas formerly mankind served (ἐλάτρευσαν) “the creature rather than the Creator” (1:25) Christians are now to present their bodies as “rational service” (tēn logikēn latreian [τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν]; see future blog post). The mind (νοῦς) needs to be transformed as it formerly was a “debased mind” (ἀδόκιμος νοῦς; 1:28). Paul also stated in 1:28 “And since they did not see fit to acknowledge God (οὐκ ἐδοκίμασαν τὸν θεόν), God gave them up to a debased mind (ἀδόκιμος νοῦς) to do what ought not to be done (ποιεῖν τὰμὴ καθήκοντα).” Christians are now able to discern what God’s will is (δοκιμάζειν τί τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ) and actually live it out.[xii] In relation to Rom 6-8 we see that the apostle used “present” (παρίστημι) language to show that the Christian is to present her entire life to God for righteousness (6:13), obedience (6:16), and sanctification (6:19).[xiii] This was reiterated in 7:1-6 in which the apostle stated that we have died to the law in order to belong to Christ and culminated in ch. 8 where the way of life in the Spirit (and in Christ) is described.
     
     Via the preposition “by” (διά[xiv]) Paul states what the basis/source of his exhortations is: the mercies of God (διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ). Braumann reasons that Paul “does not give his readers direct moral instruction, but addresses them ‘through’ (dia) God or Christ” which then shows his understanding of being some kind of mediator. [xv] I would like to suggest that Paul is giving direct moral intructions yet he does so on the basis of God’s gracious act. In Rom 12:1 we read “I appeal to you therefore, brothers, by the mercies of God” (emphasis mine), in 12:3 “by the grace given to me I say to everyone among you” (emphasis mine) and in 15:30 “I appeal to you, brothers, by our Lord Jesus Christ and by the love of the Spirit” (emphasis mine). Douglas Moo points out that “the object of διά [dia] is that which is ultimately making the appeal”[xvi] to which Ulrich Wilckens adds that the “Erbarmen Gottes die Autorität und Kraft der Mahnung des Apostels ist.”[xvii] In Rom 12:1-2 we have Paul’s argument and definition of “moral conduct as a response to God.”[xviii]


[i]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9OvDyyJG","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf J. D. G. Dunn, \\i Romans 9-16\\i0{} (Word Biblical Commentary 38B; Dallas, TX: Word Books, 1988), 708.}","plainCitation":"J. D. G. Dunn, Romans 9-16 (Word Biblical Commentary 38B; Dallas, TX: Word Books, 1988), 708."},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":43,"type":"book","title":"Romans 9-16","collection-title":"Word Biblical Commentary 38B","publisher":"Word Books","publisher-place":"Dallas, TX","event-place":"Dallas, TX","ISBN":"084990237","author":[{"family":"Dunn","given":"J. D. G."}],"issued":{"year":1988}},"locator":"708"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>J. D. G. Dunn, Romans 9-16 (Word Biblical Commentary 38B; Dallas, TX: Word Books, 1988), 708,<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> points to 2 Macc where similar language is used; cf. also e.g. Phil 4:2; 1 Thess 4:1.
[ii]Though we need to see that Rom 12:8is different as it refers to the spiritual gift of exhortation. 
[iii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"SZ7m6Is0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf J. Thomas, \\uc0\\u8220{}\\uc0\\u960{}\\uc0\\u945{}\\uc0\\u961{}\\uc0\\u945{}\\uc0\\u954{}\\uc0\\u945{}\\uc0\\u955{}\\uc0\\u949{}\\uc0\\u769{}\\uc0\\u969{},\\uc0\\u8221{} ed. Horst Robert Balz and Gerhard Schneider, \\i Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990).}","plainCitation":"J. Thomas, “παρακαλέω,” ed. Horst Robert Balz and Gerhard Schneider, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990)."},"citationItems":[{"id":711,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XRUAR3VP"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XRUAR3VP"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":711,"type":"entry-dictionary","title":"παρακαλέω","container-title":"Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","page":"471-477","volume":"3","number-of-volumes":"3","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","author":[{"family":"Thomas","given":"J."}],"editor":[{"family":"Balz","given":"Horst Robert"},{"family":"Schneider","given":"Gerhard"}],"issued":{"year":1990},"page-first":"471"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>J. Thomas, “παρακαλέω,” ed. Horst Robert Balz and Gerhard Schneider, Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1990), 3:24, mentions only 44 verb occurrences in Paul but this might be due to restrictions on his side what constitutes the Pauline corpus.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> For other dictionary entries see also Otto Schmitz, “Παρακαλέω Κτλ,” ed. Gerhard Kittel, Geoffrey W. Bromiley, and Gerhard Friedrich, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament(Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1964); G. Braumann, “Παρακαλέω,” ed. Lothar Coenen, Erich Beyreuther, and Hans Bietenhard, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986).
[iv]Thomas, “παρακαλέω,” <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"0quxEGoP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"Ibid., 3:26.","plainCitation":"Ibid., 3:26."},"citationItems":[{"id":711,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XRUAR3VP"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XRUAR3VP"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":711,"type":"entry-dictionary","title":"παρακαλέω","container-title":"Exegetical Dictionary of the New Testament","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","page":"471-477","volume":"3","number-of-volumes":"3","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","author":[{"family":"Thomas","given":"J."}],"editor":[{"family":"Balz","given":"Horst Robert"},{"family":"Schneider","given":"Gerhard"}],"issued":{"year":1990},"page-first":"471"},"locator":"26"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>3:26.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[v]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"51D79I2S","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf G. Smiga, \\uc0\\u8220{}Romans 12:1-2 and 15:30-32 and the Occasion of the Letter to the Romans,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Catholic Biblical Quarterly\\i0{} 53, no. 2 (1991): 267.}","plainCitation":"G. Smiga, “Romans 12:1-2 and 15:30-32 and the Occasion of the Letter to the Romans,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 53, no. 2 (1991): 267."},"citationItems":[{"id":28,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/FDQT7J68"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/FDQT7J68"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":28,"type":"article-journal","title":"Romans 12:1-2 and 15:30-32 and the Occasion of the Letter to the Romans","container-title":"Catholic Biblical Quarterly","page":"257-273","volume":"53","issue":"2","abstract":"The two parakalo periods in Romans should be read as they stand formally, both maintaining an equal status and illumining Paul’s double intention in writing to the Romans. Rom 12:1-2 encourages the community to act upon the unity possible in Rome through the gospel that Paul preached by means of his substitute presence in the letter (1:18-11:36). Rom 15:30-32 requests the prayerful support of the Romans for Paul’s effort in Jerusalem.-D.J.H. Abstract Number: NTA36-1992-1-285","author":[{"family":"Smiga","given":"G."}],"issued":{"year":1991},"page-first":"257"},"locator":"267"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>G. Smiga, “Romans 12:1-2 and 15:30-32 and the Occasion of the Letter to the Romans,” Catholic Biblical Quarterly 53, no. 2 (1991): 267<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> [leaning on <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g7ASGiOm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Carl Johan Bjerkelund, \\i Parakal\\uc0\\u244{}: Form, Funktion und Sinn der parakal\\uc0\\u244{}-S\\uc0\\u228{}tze in den paulinischen Briefen\\i0{} (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1967).}","plainCitation":"Carl Johan Bjerkelund, Parakalô: Form, Funktion und Sinn der parakalô-Sätze in den paulinischen Briefen (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1967)."},"citationItems":[{"id":419,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ENHR3T2Q"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ENHR3T2Q"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":419,"type":"book","title":"Parakalô: Form, Funktion und Sinn der parakalô-Sätze in den paulinischen Briefen","publisher":"Universitetsforlaget","publisher-place":"Oslo","event-place":"Oslo","shortTitle":"Parakalô","author":[{"family":"Bjerkelund","given":"Carl Johan"}],"issued":{"year":1967}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Carl Johan Bjerkelund, Parakalô: Form, Funktion und Sinn der parakalô-Sätze in den paulinischen Briefen (Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 1967)<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>], writes: “Romans 12:1-2 is not paraenesis but a request.” Though the epistolary form might be a request or an “urge” as <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"9mxXHiEP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Robert Jewett, \\i Romans: A Commentary\\i0{} (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2007), 726.}","plainCitation":"Robert Jewett, Romans: A Commentary (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2007), 726."},"citationItems":[{"id":264,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5STFSPT3"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5STFSPT3"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":264,"type":"book","title":"Romans: A Commentary","publisher":"Fortress Press","publisher-place":"Minneapolis, MN","event-place":"Minneapolis, MN","ISBN":"080066084","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Jewett","given":"Robert"}],"issued":{"year":2007}},"locator":"726"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Robert Jewett, Romans: A Commentary (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2007), 726 puts it<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>, this does not exclude moral admonition. In my opinion an either/or is not necessary here. <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hoMotwZT","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Douglas J. Moo, \\i The Epistle to the Romans\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996), 748\\uc0\\u8211{}749.}","plainCitation":"Douglas J. Moo, The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996), 748–749."},"citationItems":[{"id":918,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":918,"type":"book","title":"The Epistle to the Romans","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080282317","author":[{"family":"Moo","given":"Douglas J."}],"issued":{"year":1996}},"locator":"748-749"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Douglas J. Moo, The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1996), 748–749<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> observes that “exhort” lies somewhere in the semantic range “between ‘request’ and ‘command’: an exhortation comes with authority, but the authority of a preacher who is the mediator of God’s truth rather than the authority of a superior issuing a command.”
[vi]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HaUA0p1X","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Ernst K\\uc0\\u228{}semann, \\i New Testament Questions of Today\\i0{} (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969), 189.}","plainCitation":"Ernst Käsemann, New Testament Questions of Today (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969), 189."},"citationItems":[{"id":407,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/9HCGFVMG"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/9HCGFVMG"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":407,"type":"book","title":"New Testament Questions of Today","publisher":"Fortress","publisher-place":"Philadelphia","event-place":"Philadelphia","author":[{"family":"Käsemann","given":"Ernst"}],"issued":{"year":1969}},"locator":"189"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Ernst Käsemann, New Testament Questions of Today (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1969), 189<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>; quoted in Krentz, “The Sense of Senseless Oxymora,” 582. Chrysostom answers the question “How is the body to become a sacrifice?” in the following way: “Let the eye look on no evil thing, and it has already become a sacrifice. Let the tongue say nothing filthy, and it has become an offering. Let your hand do nothing evil, ands it has become a whole burnt offering. But this is not enough, for we must have good works also;” <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"EwaSTUXb","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Gerald Bray, ed., \\i Romans\\i0{} ( Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament VI; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998), 306.}","plainCitation":"Gerald Bray, ed., Romans ( Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament VI; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998), 306."},"citationItems":[{"id":75,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/B6X24ZID"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/B6X24ZID"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":75,"type":"book","title":"Romans","collection-number":"Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament VI","publisher":"InterVarsity Press","publisher-place":"Downers Grove, IL","event-place":"Downers Grove, IL","ISBN":"083081487","editor":[{"family":"Bray","given":"Gerald"}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"306"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Gerald Bray, ed., Romans( Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament VI; Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998), 306.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[vii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XgwIXgMV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Cranfield, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 2:595.}","plainCitation":"Cranfield, Romans, 2:595."},"citationItems":[{"id":322,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":322,"type":"book","title":"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans","collection-title":"The International Critical Commentary","collection-number":"32","publisher":"Clark","publisher-place":"Edinburgh","volume":"2","number-of-volumes":"2","event-place":"Edinburgh","ISBN":"0567050408","call-number":"BS 491 .I6 1975 v.32","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Cranfield","given":"C. E. B"}],"issued":{"year":1980}},"locator":"595"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Cranfield, Romans, 2:595.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>Cf. also <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Sxv9fHKJ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Schreiner, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 639.}","plainCitation":"Schreiner, Romans, 639."},"citationItems":[{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":73,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Books","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080102149","author":[{"family":"Schreiner","given":"Thomas R."}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"639"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Schreiner, Romans, 639<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>n. 1; <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"JTzJuTT5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Moo, \\i The Epistle to the Romans\\i0{}, 748.}","plainCitation":"Moo, The Epistle to the Romans, 748."},"citationItems":[{"id":918,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":918,"type":"book","title":"The Epistle to the Romans","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080282317","author":[{"family":"Moo","given":"Douglas J."}],"issued":{"year":1996}},"locator":"748"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Moo, The Epistle to the Romans, 748.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[viii]So e.g. <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"k3qkR2QP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Leon Morris, \\i The Epistle to the Romans\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1988); Schreiner, \\i Romans\\i0{}; Grant R. Osborne, \\i Romans\\i0{} (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2004); Jewett, \\i Romans\\i0{}.}","plainCitation":"Leon Morris, The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1988); Schreiner, Romans; Grant R. Osborne, Romans (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2004); Jewett, Romans."},"citationItems":[{"id":405,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/V2A9XHR7"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/V2A9XHR7"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":405,"type":"book","title":"The Epistle to the Romans","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080283636","author":[{"family":"Morris","given":"Leon"}],"issued":{"year":1988}}},{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":73,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Books","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080102149","author":[{"family":"Schreiner","given":"Thomas R."}],"issued":{"year":1998}}},{"id":286,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XX2VN6HI"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XX2VN6HI"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":286,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Intervarsity Press","publisher-place":"Downers Grove, IL","event-place":"Downers Grove, IL","ISBN":"083081806","author":[{"family":"Osborne","given":"Grant R."}],"issued":{"year":2004}}},{"id":264,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5STFSPT3"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5STFSPT3"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":264,"type":"book","title":"Romans: A Commentary","publisher":"Fortress Press","publisher-place":"Minneapolis, MN","event-place":"Minneapolis, MN","ISBN":"080066084","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Jewett","given":"Robert"}],"issued":{"year":2007}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Leon Morris, The Epistle to the Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1988); <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"33qBFzBk","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Moo, \\i The Epistle to the Romans\\i0{}.}","plainCitation":"Moo, The Epistle to the Romans."},"citationItems":[{"id":918,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":918,"type":"book","title":"The Epistle to the Romans","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080282317","author":[{"family":"Moo","given":"Douglas J."}],"issued":{"year":1996}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Moo, The Epistle to the Romans<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>; Schreiner, Romans; Grant R. Osborne, Romans (Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 2004); Jewett, Romans<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>; <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"7emOXlVC","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Mark A. Seifrid, \\uc0\\u8220{}Romans,\\uc0\\u8221{} in \\i Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament\\i0{} (ed. G. K Beale and D. A Carson; Grand Rapids, MI.: Nottingham, England: Baker Academic; Apollos, 2007).}","plainCitation":"Mark A. Seifrid, “Romans,” in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament (ed. G. K Beale and D. A Carson; Grand Rapids, MI.: Nottingham, England: Baker Academic; Apollos, 2007)."},"citationItems":[{"id":668,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6BN9GMBF"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6BN9GMBF"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":668,"type":"chapter","title":"Romans","container-title":"Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament","publisher":"Baker Academic; Apollos","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI.: Nottingham, England","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI.: Nottingham, England","ISBN":"9780801026935","call-number":"BS511.3 .C653 2007","editor":[{"family":"Beale","given":"G. K"},{"family":"Carson","given":"D. A"}],"author":[{"family":"Seifrid","given":"Mark A."}],"issued":{"year":2007}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Mark A. Seifrid, “Romans,” in Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament(ed. G. K Beale and D. A Carson; Grand Rapids, MI.: Nottingham, England: Baker Academic; Apollos, 2007).<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"di2AoG4c","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Timothy R. Sensing, \\uc0\\u8220{}From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12:9-21,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Restoration Quarterly\\i0{} 40, no. 3 (1998): 171\\uc0\\u8211{}187.}","plainCitation":"Timothy R. Sensing, “From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12:9-21,” Restoration Quarterly 40, no. 3 (1998): 171–187."},"citationItems":[{"id":470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/EWJBG8P6"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/EWJBG8P6"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":470,"type":"article-journal","title":"From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12:9-21","container-title":"Restoration Quarterly","page":"171-187","volume":"40","issue":"3","shortTitle":"From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12","author":[{"family":"Sensing","given":"Timothy R."}],"issued":{"year":1998},"page-first":"171"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Timothy R. Sensing, “From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12:9-21,” Restoration Quarterly40, no. 3 (1998): 171–187.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"97Hv3unK","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Dunn, \\i Romans 9-16\\i0{}, 708.}","plainCitation":"Dunn, Romans 9-16, 708."},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":43,"type":"book","title":"Romans 9-16","collection-title":"Word Biblical Commentary 38B","publisher":"Word Books","publisher-place":"Dallas, TX","event-place":"Dallas, TX","ISBN":"084990237","author":[{"family":"Dunn","given":"J. D. G."}],"issued":{"year":1988}},"locator":"708"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Dunn, Romans 9-16 thinks that it refers back to chs. 5-11.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[ix]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"pR7hxBmt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Cranfield, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 2:595.}","plainCitation":"Cranfield, Romans, 2:595."},"citationItems":[{"id":322,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":322,"type":"book","title":"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans","collection-title":"The International Critical Commentary","collection-number":"32","publisher":"Clark","publisher-place":"Edinburgh","volume":"2","number-of-volumes":"2","event-place":"Edinburgh","ISBN":"0567050408","call-number":"BS 491 .I6 1975 v.32","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Cranfield","given":"C. E. B"}],"issued":{"year":1980}},"locator":"595"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Cranfield, Romans, 2:595.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[x]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"TLsWHR8z","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Thorsteinsson, \\uc0\\u8220{}Paul and Roman stoicism,\\uc0\\u8221{} 143.}","plainCitation":"Thorsteinsson, “Paul and Roman stoicism,” 143.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":116,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DMI2D7FC"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DMI2D7FC"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":116,"type":"article-journal","title":"Paul and Roman Stoicism: Romans 12 and Contemporary Stoic Ethics","container-title":"Journal for the Study of the New Testament","page":"139-161","volume":"29","issue":"2","shortTitle":"Paul and Roman stoicism","author":[{"family":"Thorsteinsson","given":"Runar M."}],"issued":{"year":2006,"season":"D"},"page-first":"139"},"locator":"143"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Thorsteinsson, “Paul and Roman Stoicism,” 143<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> calls 12:1-2 the “structural centre”; <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"uhT2A6Fm","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Wolfgang Fenske, \\i Die Argumentation des Paulus in ethischen Herausforderungen\\i0{}, 1. Aufl. (Go\\uc0\\u776{}ttingen, Germany: V & R Unipress, 2004), 215.}","plainCitation":"Wolfgang Fenske, Die Argumentation des Paulus in ethischen Herausforderungen, 1. Aufl. (Göttingen, Germany: V & R Unipress, 2004), 215.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":189,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/3SQTA8KG"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/3SQTA8KG"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":189,"type":"book","title":"Die Argumentation des Paulus in ethischen Herausforderungen","publisher":"V & R Unipress","publisher-place":"Göttingen, Germany","number-of-pages":"341","edition":"1. Aufl","event-place":"Göttingen, Germany","ISBN":"3899711645","call-number":"BS2655.E8 F46x 2004","author":[{"family":"Fenske","given":"Wolfgang"}],"issued":{"year":2004}},"locator":"215"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Wolfgang Fenske, Die Argumentation des Paulus in ethischen Herausforderungen, 1. Aufl. (Göttingen, Germany: V & R Unipress, 2004), 215<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> states that this “Einleitung bietet ein Grundsatzprogramm…dar;” cf. also <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fKqySqGt","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Walter T. Wilson, \\i Love Without Pretense: Romans 12.9-21 and Hellenistic-Jewish Wisdom Literature\\i0{} (T\\uc0\\u252{}bingen: Mohr, 1991), 93.}","plainCitation":"Walter T. Wilson, Love Without Pretense: Romans 12.9-21 and Hellenistic-Jewish Wisdom Literature (Tübingen: Mohr, 1991), 93."},"citationItems":[{"id":503,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/FJ6C9T5N"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/FJ6C9T5N"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":503,"type":"book","title":"Love Without Pretense: Romans 12.9-21 and Hellenistic-Jewish Wisdom Literature","publisher":"Mohr","publisher-place":"Tübingen","event-place":"Tübingen","ISBN":"316145756","shortTitle":"Love without pretense","author":[{"family":"Wilson","given":"Walter T."}],"issued":{"year":1991}},"locator":"93"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Walter T. Wilson, Love without Pretense: Romans 12.9-21 and Hellenistic-Jewish Wisdom Literature(Tübingen: Mohr, 1991), 93.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> 
[xi]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"D5Ub1FDI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Furnish, \\i Theology and Ethics in Paul\\i0{}, 1033.}","plainCitation":"Furnish, Theology and Ethics in Paul, 1033."},"citationItems":[{"id":703,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/E4BTUIRX"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/E4BTUIRX"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":703,"type":"book","title":"Theology and Ethics in Paul","publisher":"Westminster John Knox Press","number-of-pages":"300","ISBN":"0664233368","author":[{"family":"Furnish","given":"Victor Paul"}],"issued":{"year":2009}},"locator":"1033"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Furnish, Theology and Ethics in Paul, 103-106<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>. The observations (i.e., what follows) above are to be credited to him.  But see also <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qmfgiI9u","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Morna D. Hooker, \\uc0\\u8220{}Interchange in Christ and Ethics,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Journal for the Study of the New Testament\\i0{}, no. 25 (1985): 4.}","plainCitation":"Morna D. Hooker, “Interchange in Christ and Ethics,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament, no. 25 (1985): 4."},"citationItems":[{"id":135,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/SGQKG56U"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/SGQKG56U"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":135,"type":"article-journal","title":"Interchange in Christ and Ethics","container-title":"Journal for the Study of the New Testament","page":"3-17","issue":"25","abstract":"The logical link between theology and ethical exhortation in Paul’s thought is explored in terms of \"interchange\"; this should be interpreted, not in terms of exchange, but of sharing, and involves sharing in Christ’s behaviour and in his status.  Paul speaks of Christians beginning to share in Christ’s glory in this life, but since the only basis for glory is the cross, they should expect this to involve them in shame rather than honour. Paul’s ethical teaching is governed by the principle of conformity to the gospel-a sharing in Christ’s weakness, poverty and suffering; this principle is as relevant in the 20th century as in the first.","author":[{"family":"Hooker","given":"Morna D."}],"issued":{"year":1985},"page-first":"3"},"locator":"4"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Morna D. Hooker, “Interchange in Christ and Ethics,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament, no. 25 (1985): 4; <!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"82VCwrde","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Dunn, \\i Romans 9-16\\i0{}, 707\\uc0\\u8211{}708.}","plainCitation":"Dunn, Romans 9-16, 707–708."},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":43,"type":"book","title":"Romans 9-16","collection-title":"Word Biblical Commentary 38B","publisher":"Word Books","publisher-place":"Dallas, TX","event-place":"Dallas, TX","ISBN":"084990237","author":[{"family":"Dunn","given":"J. D. G."}],"issued":{"year":1988}},"locator":"707-708"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Dunn, Romans 9-16, 707–708;<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"zQdf7iSL","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Thompson, \\i Clothed with Christ\\i0{}, 79\\uc0\\u8211{}83.}","plainCitation":"Thompson, Clothed with Christ, 79–83."},"citationItems":[{"id":781,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/PP3VW8DV"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/PP3VW8DV"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":781,"type":"book","title":"Clothed with Christ: The Example and Teaching of Jesus in Romans 12.1-15.13","publisher":"JSOT Press","publisher-place":"Sheffield","event-place":"Sheffield","ISBN":"185075309","shortTitle":"Clothed with Christ","author":[{"family":"Thompson","given":"Michael B."}],"issued":{"year":1991}},"locator":"79-83"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Thompson, Clothed with Christ, 79–83.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"CIr3L4Et","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Michael B. Thompson, \\uc0\\u8220{}Romans 12:1-2 and Paul\\uc0\\u8217{}s Vision for Worship,\\uc0\\u8221{} in \\i Vision for the Church\\i0{} (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997), 124\\uc0\\u8211{}127.}","plainCitation":"Michael B. Thompson, “Romans 12:1-2 and Paul’s Vision for Worship,” in Vision for the Church (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997), 124–127."},"citationItems":[{"id":364,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/C3HIQCKC"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/C3HIQCKC"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":364,"type":"chapter","title":"Romans 12:1-2 and Paul’s Vision for Worship","container-title":"Vision for the Church","publisher":"T & T Clark","publisher-place":"Edinburgh","page":"121-132","event-place":"Edinburgh","ISBN":"0567085732","author":[{"family":"Thompson","given":"Michael B."}],"issued":{"year":1997},"page-first":"121"},"locator":"124-127"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>, “Romans 12:1-2 and Paul’s Vision for Worship,” in Vision for the Church (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1997), 124–127; <!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>and <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XE83MHmQ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf D. Peterson, \\uc0\\u8220{}Worship and Ethics in Romans 12,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Tyndale Bulletin\\i0{} 44, no. 2 (1993): 276\\uc0\\u8211{}279.}","plainCitation":"D. Peterson, “Worship and Ethics in Romans 12,” Tyndale Bulletin 44, no. 2 (1993): 276–279."},"citationItems":[{"id":463,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6JURB4EV"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6JURB4EV"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":463,"type":"article-journal","title":"Worship and Ethics in Romans 12","container-title":"Tyndale Bulletin","page":"271-288","volume":"44","issue":"2","abstract":"The term logike latreia in Rom 12:1 refers to the service rendered by those who truly understand the gospel and its implications (‘understanding worship’). In Rom 12:1-2 Paul proclaims a reversal of the downward spiral depicted in 1:18-32. The theme of service in the body of Christ is then developed by the various exhortations and examples in Rom 12:3-21.-D.J.H. Abstract Number: NTA38-1994-2-900","author":[{"family":"Peterson","given":"D."}],"issued":{"year":1993},"page-first":"271"},"locator":"276-279"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>D. Peterson, “Worship and Ethics in Romans 12,” Tyndale Bulletin 44, no. 2 (1993): 276–279.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[xii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"G2tzoq1r","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Peterson, \\uc0\\u8220{}Worship and Ethics in Romans 12,\\uc0\\u8221{} 44:284.}","plainCitation":"Peterson, “Worship and Ethics in Romans 12,” 44:284."},"citationItems":[{"id":463,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6JURB4EV"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6JURB4EV"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":463,"type":"article-journal","title":"Worship and Ethics in Romans 12","container-title":"Tyndale Bulletin","page":"271-288","volume":"44","issue":"2","abstract":"The term logike latreia in Rom 12:1 refers to the service rendered by those who truly understand the gospel and its implications (‘understanding worship’). In Rom 12:1-2 Paul proclaims a reversal of the downward spiral depicted in 1:18-32. The theme of service in the body of Christ is then developed by the various exhortations and examples in Rom 12:3-21.-D.J.H. Abstract Number: NTA38-1994-2-900","author":[{"family":"Peterson","given":"D."}],"issued":{"year":1993},"page-first":"271"},"locator":"284"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Peterson, “Worship and Ethics in Romans 12,” 44:284.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> leaning on [<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"oOOEx1ZH","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Thompson, \\i Clothed with Christ\\i0{}.}","plainCitation":"Thompson, Clothed with Christ."},"citationItems":[{"id":781,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/PP3VW8DV"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/PP3VW8DV"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":781,"type":"book","title":"Clothed with Christ: The Example and Teaching of Jesus in Romans 12.1-15.13","publisher":"JSOT Press","publisher-place":"Sheffield","event-place":"Sheffield","ISBN":"185075309","shortTitle":"Clothed with Christ","author":[{"family":"Thompson","given":"Michael B."}],"issued":{"year":1991}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Thompson, Clothed with Christ<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>] shows the following parallels:
wrath
mercy
refusing to glorify or thank God
(thankful) sacrifice
dishonouring the body
offering the body
σύνετος, idolatrous λατρεία
λογική λατρεία
reprobate mind
renewed mind
rejecting the δικαίωμα τού Θεο
approving the θέλημα του Θεο
[xiii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"kDghCPm6","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Sensing, \\uc0\\u8220{}From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12,\\uc0\\u8221{} 172.}","plainCitation":"Sensing, “From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12,” 172.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":470,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/EWJBG8P6"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/EWJBG8P6"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":470,"type":"article-journal","title":"From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12:9-21","container-title":"Restoration Quarterly","page":"171-187","volume":"40","issue":"3","shortTitle":"From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12","author":[{"family":"Sensing","given":"Timothy R."}],"issued":{"year":1998},"page-first":"171"},"locator":"172"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Sensing, “From Exegesis to Sermon in Romans 12,” 172<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> states that “Romans 6 connects to Romans 12 in theme more so than any other passage in the letter.”
[xiv] <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Zo4Gver4","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Dunn, \\i Romans 9-16\\i0{}, 709; Furnish, \\i Theology and Ethics in Paul\\i0{}, 102.}","plainCitation":"Dunn, Romans 9-16, 709; Furnish, Theology and Ethics in Paul, 102."},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":43,"type":"book","title":"Romans 9-16","collection-title":"Word Biblical Commentary 38B","publisher":"Word Books","publisher-place":"Dallas, TX","event-place":"Dallas, TX","ISBN":"084990237","author":[{"family":"Dunn","given":"J. D. G."}],"issued":{"year":1988}},"locator":"709"},{"id":703,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/E4BTUIRX"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/E4BTUIRX"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":703,"type":"book","title":"Theology and Ethics in Paul","publisher":"Westminster John Knox Press","number-of-pages":"300","ISBN":"0664233368","author":[{"family":"Furnish","given":"Victor Paul"}],"issued":{"year":2009}},"locator":"102"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Dunn, Romans 9-16, 709; Furnish, Theology and Ethics in Paul, 102<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> see the preposition as instrumental; but see the treatment above.
[xv]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"c33EbWAV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf G. Braumann, \\uc0\\u8220{}\\uc0\\u960{}\\uc0\\u945{}\\uc0\\u961{}\\uc0\\u945{}\\uc0\\u954{}\\uc0\\u945{}\\uc0\\u955{}\\uc0\\u949{}\\uc0\\u769{}\\uc0\\u969{},\\uc0\\u8221{} ed. Lothar Coenen, Erich Beyreuther, and Hans Bietenhard, \\i New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 570.}","plainCitation":"G. Braumann, “παρακαλέω,” ed. Lothar Coenen, Erich Beyreuther, and Hans Bietenhard, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 570.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":713,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/PMKC6JHH"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/PMKC6JHH"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":713,"type":"entry-dictionary","title":"παρακαλέω","container-title":"New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology","publisher":"Zondervan","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","volume":"1","number-of-volumes":"4","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","author":[{"family":"Braumann","given":"G."}],"editor":[{"family":"Coenen","given":"Lothar"},{"family":"Beyreuther","given":"Erich"},{"family":"Bietenhard","given":"Hans"}],"issued":{"year":1986}},"locator":"570"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>G. Braumann, “παρακαλέω,” ed. Lothar Coenen, Erich Beyreuther, and Hans Bietenhard, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 570<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>. 
[xvi]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"C3patW1D","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Moo, \\i The Epistle to the Romans\\i0{}, 749.}","plainCitation":"Moo, The Epistle to the Romans, 749."},"citationItems":[{"id":918,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XUP3JNHT"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":918,"type":"book","title":"The Epistle to the Romans","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080282317","author":[{"family":"Moo","given":"Douglas J."}],"issued":{"year":1996}},"locator":"749"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Moo, The Epistle to the Romans, 749<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> n. 21; similarly <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"4TzKTS6l","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Schreiner, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 643.}","plainCitation":"Schreiner, Romans, 643."},"citationItems":[{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":73,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Books","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080102149","author":[{"family":"Schreiner","given":"Thomas R."}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"643"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Schreiner, Romans, 643.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[xvii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"qdvn4Ma1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Ulrich Wilckens, \\i Der Brief an die R\\uc0\\u246{}mer (12-16)\\i0{}, 3rd ed. (Z\\uc0\\u252{}rich: Benziger, 1997), 3.}","plainCitation":"Ulrich Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 3rd ed. (Zürich: Benziger, 1997), 3.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":396,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":396,"type":"book","title":"Der Brief an die Römer (12-16)","publisher":"Benziger","publisher-place":"Zürich","edition":"3","event-place":"Zürich","ISBN":"354523103","author":[{"family":"Wilckens","given":"Ulrich"}],"issued":{"year":1997}},"locator":"3"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Ulrich Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 3rd ed. (Zürich: Benziger, 1997), 3<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>. <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"MfIc0ZEg","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf H.-H. Esser, \\uc0\\u8220{}\\uc0\\u927{}\\uc0\\u953{}\\uc0\\u787{}\\uc0\\u954{}\\uc0\\u964{}\\uc0\\u953{}\\uc0\\u961{}\\uc0\\u956{}\\uc0\\u959{}\\uc0\\u769{}\\uc0\\u962{},\\uc0\\u8221{} ed. Lothar Coenen, Erich Beyreuther, and Hans Bietenhard, \\i New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 598.}","plainCitation":"H.-H. Esser, “Οἰκτιρμός,” ed. Lothar Coenen, Erich Beyreuther, and Hans Bietenhard, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 598.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":418,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/3MW3GKZT"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/3MW3GKZT"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":418,"type":"entry-dictionary","title":"Οἰκτιρμός","container-title":"New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology","publisher":"Zondervan","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","volume":"2","number-of-volumes":"4","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","author":[{"family":"Esser","given":"H.-H."}],"editor":[{"family":"Coenen","given":"Lothar"},{"family":"Beyreuther","given":"Erich"},{"family":"Bietenhard","given":"Hans"}],"issued":{"year":1986}},"locator":"598"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>H.-H. Esser, “Οἰκτιρμός,” ed. Lothar Coenen, Erich Beyreuther, and Hans Bietenhard, New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology(Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1986), 598<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> states: “Just as the phrase sums up God’s saving acts and plan of salvation previously outlined in Rom. 11, so also God’s mercies are the presupposition—the grounds of the “therefore” (12:1)—for the Christian life.”
[xviii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2R1LAEKF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Thompson, \\i Moral Formation\\i0{}, 170.}","plainCitation":"Thompson, Moral Formation, 170."},"citationItems":[{"id":661,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/G4TWPXF7"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/G4TWPXF7"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":661,"type":"book","title":"Moral Formation According to Paul: The Context and Coherence of Pauline Ethics","publisher":"Baker Academic","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"978080103","shortTitle":"Moral Formation","author":[{"family":"Thompson","given":"James W."}],"issued":{"year":2011}},"locator":"170"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Thompson, Moral Formation, 170.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>

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