The Life of the Believer as Self-Sacrifice for God—Romans 12:1-2 (PART TWO)

Last week we looked into some of the introductory matters of Rom 12:1-2, and today I would like to write about some further observations.  
The mercies of God are the foundational starting point to begin the paraklesis of Rom 12. Peter Stuhlmacher, in pointing to Ps 51:3 and Dan 9:9, 18, states that “the mercy of God refers to the divine conduct in which God turns to sinners and forgives them their sins” (we have seen this specifically in Rom 3:25;[i]5:6-8; 8:1).[ii]The mercies (pl.) of God seem to refer to the LXX translation of רַחֲמִים (cf. e.g. Gen 43:14; Deut 13:18; 2 Sam 24:14; Ps 51:1, 51:3; Isa 47:6; Jer 42:12).[iii] The usage of the plural οἰκτιρμοί, though theologically might refer to the manifold mercies of God, lexically harkens back to the Hebrew Scriptures.[iv] It is by the mercies of God—which Paul has marveled at[v]—that the Christian is to present (παραστῆσαι) her body “as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God” (θυσίαν ζῶσαν ἁγίαν εὐάρεστον τῷ θεῷ). Paul turns to cultic metaphor.[vi]Adolf Schlatter long ago wonderfully observed: “Daß aus dem Leibe der Sünde ein heiliges Opfer wird und daß sie sich von der gegenwärtigen bösen Welt unterscheidet, das ist so, weil sich Gott ihrer erbarmt.[vii] Again we see that the paraklesis grounded in God’s mercy. But what does Paul mean with sacrifice/θυσίαν (1) living/ζῶσαν, (2) holy/ἁγίαν, (3) pleasing to God/εὐάρεστον τῷ θεῷ, and (4) the appositional clause[viii] “rational service”/τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν ὑμῶν?
        Sacrifices were common practice in both Jewish as well as Graeco-Roman societies.[ix] Thus the term θυσία has no pure connection to either of these two. But Mark A. Seifrid states that the context “recalls sacrifices of thanksgiving” and lists e.g. Lev 1:1-2:16; Ps 27:6; 50:14, 23; 96:8; 107:22; 116:17 as OT precedents.[x] In light of the overall argument Paul is pursuing this is a valid interpretation, though we should not push the reference too far as to exclude other imagery Paul might invoke with his language.
        We are to present our bodies as a “sacrifice living” or “sacrifice alive.” This rather harsh English translation reflects the Greek syntax. Most English translations (ESV, NRSV, HCSB, TNIV, GNB) render it “a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable” but the NET better reflects the syntax: “present your bodies as a sacrifice—alive, holy, and pleasing to God—which is your reasonable service.”[xi] Raymond Corriveau states that “the sacrifice is living, as vivified by the life of the risen Christ, as manifesting that life and as leading to life” and goes on to write that “[t]he sacrifice is ‘living’ with that life of Christ which is given us in baptism and which rescues us from the death of sin (cf. also Rom 6:4). The Spirit which has been given us is an inward principle of new life given by God (Romans 8:9,11; 5:5; cf. 1 Thessalonians 4:8).”[xii] Yet, to state that we should present our bodies as θυσίαν ζῶσαν seems to be an oxymoron. “A living sacrifice is a contradiction in terms, is really religious nonsense; one kills an animal sacrifice, burns a cereal sacrifice, pours out the libation on the ground.”[xiii]Paul confronts the Christian with this “cultic oxymoron” to show that “life is worship.”[xiv]In reference to “sacrifice” Ulrich Wilckens also points out that “das eine Opfer Christi [macht] alles menschliche Opfern grundsätzlich zum Anachronismus.” In lieu of sacrifices we now have the Glaubensgehorsamwhich is of utter importance.[xv]


[i]For a more detailed treatment on 3:25 see the Appendix.
[ii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"QT3fADv0","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Peter Stuhlmacher, \\i Paul\\uc0\\u8217{}s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary\\i0{}, 1st ed. (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, c1994.), 187.}","plainCitation":"Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary, 1st ed. (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, c1994.), 187.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":134,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/T2W9KG5E"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/T2W9KG5E"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":134,"type":"book","title":"Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary","publisher":"Westminster/John Knox Press","publisher-place":"Louisville, KY","edition":"1st ed.","event-place":"Louisville, KY","ISBN":"066425287","shortTitle":"Paul’s letter to the Romans","author":[{"family":"Stuhlmacher","given":"Peter"}],"issued":{"literal":"c1994."}},"locator":"187"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Peter Stuhlmacher, Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary (Louisville, KY: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1994), 187.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"KCXyekRI","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Frank J. Matera, \\i Romans\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010), 286.}","plainCitation":"Frank J. Matera, Romans (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010), 286."},"citationItems":[{"id":23,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XKAD74H8"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XKAD74H8"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":23,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Academic","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"978080103","author":[{"family":"Matera","given":"Frank J."}],"issued":{"year":2010}},"locator":"286"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Frank J. Matera, Romans(Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2010), 286<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> states that the language chosen by Paul “suggests that Paul is drawing this inference on the basis of the compassion that God has manifested toward humanity in Jesus Christ.” We also see other OT references in
Ps 24(25):6 “Remember your compassionate and faithful deeds (τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν σου), O Lord” [NET];  Dan 2:18He asked them to pray for mercy (οἰκτιρμοὺς) from the God of heaven (παρὰ τοῦ θεοῦ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ)” [NET]; and Exod 34:6 “The Lord passed by before him and proclaimed: ‘The Lord, the Lord, the compassionate and gracious God (Κύριος θεὸς οἰκτίρμων) slow to anger, and abounding in loyal love and faithfulness…’” [NET].
[iii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"w4G1TGzi","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Schreiner, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 643.}","plainCitation":"Schreiner, Romans, 643."},"citationItems":[{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":73,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Books","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080102149","author":[{"family":"Schreiner","given":"Thomas R."}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"643"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Schreiner, Romans, 643;<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"gqvx26ab","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Dunn, \\i Romans 9-16\\i0{}, 709.}","plainCitation":"Dunn, Romans 9-16, 709."},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":43,"type":"book","title":"Romans 9-16","collection-title":"Word Biblical Commentary 38B","publisher":"Word Books","publisher-place":"Dallas, TX","event-place":"Dallas, TX","ISBN":"084990237","author":[{"family":"Dunn","given":"J. D. G."}],"issued":{"year":1988}},"locator":"709"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Dunn, Romans 9-16, 709; <!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XGFdoLDP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Wilckens, \\i Der Brief an die R\\uc0\\u246{}mer (12-16)\\i0{}, 2.}","plainCitation":"Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 2."},"citationItems":[{"id":396,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":396,"type":"book","title":"Der Brief an die Römer (12-16)","publisher":"Benziger","publisher-place":"Zürich","edition":"3","event-place":"Zürich","ISBN":"354523103","author":[{"family":"Wilckens","given":"Ulrich"}],"issued":{"year":1997}},"locator":"2"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 2 n<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>. 9. Schreiner, however, cautions and states that “[i]n some OT texts, however, the plural may be significant exegetically. See Ps. 25:6; 40:11 (40:12 MT); 69:16 (69:17 MT); 79:8; 119:56” (p. 643 n. 2).
[iv]Schreiner, Romans, 643; cf. <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"g5lErtXZ","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Rudolf Bultmann, \\uc0\\u8220{}\\uc0\\u959{}\\uc0\\u953{}\\uc0\\u787{}\\uc0\\u954{}\\uc0\\u964{}\\uc0\\u953{}\\uc0\\u961{}\\uc0\\u956{}\\uc0\\u959{}\\uc0\\u962{} \\uc0\\u954{}\\uc0\\u964{}\\uc0\\u955{},\\uc0\\u8221{} ed. Gerhard Kittel, \\i Theological Dictionary of the New Testament\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979), 5:161.}","plainCitation":"Rudolf Bultmann, “οἰκτιρμος κτλ,” ed. Gerhard Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979), 5:161."},"citationItems":[{"id":417,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ZQ2GCI68"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ZQ2GCI68"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":417,"type":"entry-dictionary","title":"οἰκτιρμος κτλ","container-title":"Theological Dictionary of the New Testament","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","page":"297-300","volume":"5","number-of-volumes":"10","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","author":[{"family":"Bultmann","given":"Rudolf"}],"editor":[{"family":"Kittel","given":"Gerhard"}],"issued":{"year":1979},"page-first":"297"},"locator":"161"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Rudolf Bultmann, “οἰκτιρμος κτλ,” ed. Gerhard Kittel, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1979), 5:161.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"st4gElx1","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Schreiner, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 643.}","plainCitation":"Schreiner, Romans, 643."},"citationItems":[{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":73,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Books","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080102149","author":[{"family":"Schreiner","given":"Thomas R."}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"643"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[v]See specifically 11:33-36 but also 1:5, 7; 3:24; 4:4, 16; 5:2, 15-21; 6:1, 14-17; 9:15-23; 11:5-6, 30-32 as references to God’s grace and love; cf. <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"nDUKkVTv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Jewett, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 727.}","plainCitation":"Jewett, Romans, 727."},"citationItems":[{"id":264,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5STFSPT3"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5STFSPT3"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":264,"type":"book","title":"Romans: A Commentary","publisher":"Fortress Press","publisher-place":"Minneapolis, MN","event-place":"Minneapolis, MN","ISBN":"080066084","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Jewett","given":"Robert"}],"issued":{"year":2007}},"locator":"727"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Jewett, Romans, 727.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[vi]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"E007tSFa","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Dunn, \\i Romans 9-16\\i0{}, 709.}","plainCitation":"Dunn, Romans 9-16, 709."},"citationItems":[{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":43,"type":"book","title":"Romans 9-16","collection-title":"Word Biblical Commentary 38B","publisher":"Word Books","publisher-place":"Dallas, TX","event-place":"Dallas, TX","ISBN":"084990237","author":[{"family":"Dunn","given":"J. D. G."}],"issued":{"year":1988}},"locator":"709"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Dunn, Romans 9-16, 709<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>observes that the use of  παρίστημι “is certainly drawn from the technical language of sacrifice.” See also <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"HWIl0L3D","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Arland J. Hultgren, \\i Paul\\uc0\\u8217{}s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary\\i0{} (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011).}","plainCitation":"Arland J. Hultgren, Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011)."},"citationItems":[{"id":128,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/8B4TGSCX"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/8B4TGSCX"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":128,"type":"book","title":"Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"978080282","shortTitle":"Paul’s Letter to the Romans","author":[{"family":"Hultgren","given":"Arland J."}],"issued":{"year":2011}}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Arland J. Hultgren, Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Commentary (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2011), 439; <!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"mWR2wQWP","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Thompson, \\uc0\\u8220{}Romans 12:1-2 and Paul\\uc0\\u8217{}s Vision for Worship.\\uc0\\u8221{}}","plainCitation":"Thompson, “Romans 12:1-2 and Paul’s Vision for Worship.”"},"citationItems":[{"id":364,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/C3HIQCKC"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/C3HIQCKC"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":364,"type":"chapter","title":"Romans 12:1-2 and Paul’s Vision for Worship","container-title":"Vision for the Church","publisher":"T & T Clark","publisher-place":"Edinburgh","page":"121-132","event-place":"Edinburgh","ISBN":"0567085732","author":[{"family":"Thompson","given":"Michael B."}],"issued":{"year":1997},"page-first":"121"}}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Thompson, “Romans 12:1-2 and Paul’s Vision for Worship.”<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"B91cnLE5","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf C. J. Roetzel, \\uc0\\u8220{}Sacrifice in Romans 12-15,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Word & World\\i0{} 6, no. 4 (1986): 414.}","plainCitation":"C. J. Roetzel, “Sacrifice in Romans 12-15,” Word & World 6, no. 4 (1986): 414."},"citationItems":[{"id":248,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ARVJ5FT9"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ARVJ5FT9"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":248,"type":"article-journal","title":"Sacrifice in Romans 12-15","container-title":"Word & World","page":"410-419","volume":"6","issue":"4","abstract":"That the sacrifice metaphor (see Rom 12:1-2) was a controlling one for Paul’s exhortation is supported by the reappearance of the sacrificial imagery at the conclusion of the paraenesis (see 15:15-19). In between, Paul provided instances of sacrificial obedience consistent with his gospel of grace and the imminent parousia of Christ. Paul’s emphasis on sacrificial obedience was intended to refute the charge that his gospel was antinomian and his apostleship unworthy of support.-D.J.H. Abstract Number: NTA31-1987-2-723","author":[{"family":"Roetzel","given":"C. J."}],"issued":{"year":1986},"page-first":"410"},"locator":"414"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>C. J. Roetzel, “Sacrifice in Romans 12-15,” Word & World 6, no. 4 (1986): 414<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> calls this “a powerful, even violent, metaphor [that] arrests the reader’s attention.” <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Co9DqWDv","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Schreiner, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 644.}","plainCitation":"Schreiner, Romans, 644."},"citationItems":[{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":73,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Books","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080102149","author":[{"family":"Schreiner","given":"Thomas R."}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"644"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Schreiner, Romans, 644<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>states that “cultic terminology dominates the rest of verse 1, indicating that Paul now applies the sacrificial language of the OT to the Roman Christians.”
[vii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"bUxcTFmV","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Adolf von Schlatter, \\i Gottes Gerechtigkeit: Ein Kommentar zum R\\uc0\\u246{}merbrief\\i0{} (4. Aufl.; Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1965), 331.}","plainCitation":"Adolf von Schlatter, Gottes Gerechtigkeit: Ein Kommentar zum Römerbrief (4. Aufl.; Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1965), 331."},"citationItems":[{"id":263,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5MAD424T"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5MAD424T"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":263,"type":"book","title":"Gottes Gerechtigkeit: Ein Kommentar zum Römerbrief","publisher":"Calwer Verlag","publisher-place":"Stuttgart","edition":"4. Aufl.","event-place":"Stuttgart","shortTitle":"Gottes Gerechtigkeit","author":[{"family":"Schlatter","given":"Adolf von"}],"issued":{"year":1965}},"locator":"331"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Adolf von Schlatter, Gottes Gerechtigkeit: Ein Kommentar zum Römerbrief (4. Aufl.; Stuttgart: Calwer Verlag, 1965), 331.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[viii]The apositional clause refers back to the entire preceding sentence; so rightly <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"XTZyCcZX","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Cranfield, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 2:601; Wilckens, \\i Der Brief an die R\\uc0\\u246{}mer (12-16)\\i0{}, 4; Dunn, \\i Romans 9-16\\i0{}, 711; Joseph A. Fitzmyer, \\i Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary\\i0{} (1st ed.; Anchor Bible Commentary 33; New York: Doubleday, 1993), 640; Schreiner, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 644.}","plainCitation":"Cranfield, Romans, 2:601; Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 4; Dunn, Romans 9-16, 711; Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (1st ed.; Anchor Bible Commentary 33; New York: Doubleday, 1993), 640; Schreiner, Romans, 644."},"citationItems":[{"id":322,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":322,"type":"book","title":"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans","collection-title":"The International Critical Commentary","collection-number":"32","publisher":"Clark","publisher-place":"Edinburgh","volume":"2","number-of-volumes":"2","event-place":"Edinburgh","ISBN":"0567050408","call-number":"BS 491 .I6 1975 v.32","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Cranfield","given":"C. E. B"}],"issued":{"year":1980}},"locator":"601"},{"id":396,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":396,"type":"book","title":"Der Brief an die Römer (12-16)","publisher":"Benziger","publisher-place":"Zürich","edition":"3","event-place":"Zürich","ISBN":"354523103","author":[{"family":"Wilckens","given":"Ulrich"}],"issued":{"year":1997}},"locator":"4"},{"id":43,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/DE6JQW86"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":43,"type":"book","title":"Romans 9-16","collection-title":"Word Biblical Commentary 38B","publisher":"Word Books","publisher-place":"Dallas, TX","event-place":"Dallas, TX","ISBN":"084990237","author":[{"family":"Dunn","given":"J. D. G."}],"issued":{"year":1988}},"locator":"711"},{"id":139,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/4E35IUE4"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/4E35IUE4"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":139,"type":"book","title":"Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary","collection-title":"Anchor Bible Commentary","collection-number":"33","publisher":"Doubleday","publisher-place":"New York","edition":"1st ed.","event-place":"New York","ISBN":"038523317","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Fitzmyer","given":"Joseph A."}],"issued":{"year":1993}},"locator":"640"},{"id":73,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/IM3MAGRK"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":73,"type":"book","title":"Romans","publisher":"Baker Books","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080102149","author":[{"family":"Schreiner","given":"Thomas R."}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"644"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Cranfield, Romans, 2:601; Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 4; Dunn, Romans 9-16, 711; Joseph A. Fitzmyer, Romans: A New Translation with Introduction and Commentary (1st ed.; Anchor Bible Commentary 33; New York: Doubleday, 1993), 640; Schreiner, Romans, 644.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[ix]For Graeco-Roman background on sacrifices see <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hKgehmSq","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Everett Ferguson, \\i Backgrounds of Early Christianity\\i0{}, third ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), 188\\uc0\\u8211{}193.}","plainCitation":"Everett Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, third ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), 188–193.","dontUpdate":true},"citationItems":[{"id":685,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/NBVFUR52"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/NBVFUR52"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":685,"type":"book","title":"Backgrounds of Early Christianity","publisher":"Eerdmans","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","edition":"third ed.","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI","ISBN":"080280669","author":[{"family":"Ferguson","given":"Everett"}],"issued":{"year":2003}},"locator":"188-193"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Everett Ferguson, Backgrounds of Early Christianity, 3rd ed. (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2003), 188–193.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[x]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"z619y2yd","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Seifrid, \\uc0\\u8220{}Romans,\\uc0\\u8221{} 680.}","plainCitation":"Seifrid, “Romans,” 680."},"citationItems":[{"id":668,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6BN9GMBF"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/6BN9GMBF"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":668,"type":"chapter","title":"Romans","container-title":"Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament","publisher":"Baker Academic; Apollos","publisher-place":"Grand Rapids, MI.: Nottingham, England","event-place":"Grand Rapids, MI.: Nottingham, England","ISBN":"9780801026935","call-number":"BS511.3 .C653 2007","editor":[{"family":"Beale","given":"G. K"},{"family":"Carson","given":"D. A"}],"author":[{"family":"Seifrid","given":"Mark A."}],"issued":{"year":2007}},"locator":"680"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Seifrid, “Romans,” 680.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–><!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Tu7HhAT3","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Robert A. Bryant, \\uc0\\u8220{}Romans 12:1-8,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Interpretation\\i0{} 58, no. 3 (2004): 290.}","plainCitation":"Robert A. Bryant, “Romans 12:1-8,” Interpretation 58, no. 3 (2004): 290."},"citationItems":[{"id":433,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/9HSPDEKM"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/9HSPDEKM"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":433,"type":"article-journal","title":"Romans 12:1-8","container-title":"Interpretation","page":"287-290","volume":"58","issue":"3","shortTitle":"Romans 12","author":[{"family":"Bryant","given":"Robert A."}],"issued":{"year":2004},"page-first":"287"},"locator":"290"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Robert A. Bryant, “Romans 12:1-8,” Interpretation 58, no. 3 (2004): 290<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> states at the end of his observations: “Life in Christ cannot mean life as usual before receiving Christ, for in Jesus Christ God confronts and challenges us in order to bring us into the peace and love of his kingdom, both now and forevermore. Once the symphony of this good news penetrates our hearts and minds, bringing forth new life in Christ, faithfulness becomes nothing less than the thankful presentation of our bodies—our total beings—to God’s service for the benefit of others” [emphasis mine].
[xi]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"fHytxeNL","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Cranfield, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 2:600.}","plainCitation":"Cranfield, Romans, 2:600."},"citationItems":[{"id":322,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":322,"type":"book","title":"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans","collection-title":"The International Critical Commentary","collection-number":"32","publisher":"Clark","publisher-place":"Edinburgh","volume":"2","number-of-volumes":"2","event-place":"Edinburgh","ISBN":"0567050408","call-number":"BS 491 .I6 1975 v.32","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Cranfield","given":"C. E. B"}],"issued":{"year":1980}},"locator":"600"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Cranfield, Romans, 2:600<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>also observes that “when all three epithets are seen to be on the same level, it is more natural to look for a meaning for ‘living’ more akin to that of ‘holy’ and ‘acceptable to God’.”
[xii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"T8ClTVFN","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Raymond Corriveau, \\i The Liturgy of Life: A Study of the Ethical Thought of St. Paul in His Letters to the Early Christian Communities\\i0{} (Bruxelles: Descl\\uc0\\u233{}e De Brouwer, 1970), 170.}","plainCitation":"Raymond Corriveau, The Liturgy of Life: A Study of the Ethical Thought of St. Paul in His Letters to the Early Christian Communities (Bruxelles: Desclée De Brouwer, 1970), 170."},"citationItems":[{"id":409,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/RTZ4IQ2T"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/RTZ4IQ2T"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":409,"type":"book","title":"The Liturgy of Life: A Study of the Ethical Thought of St. Paul in His Letters to the Early Christian Communities","publisher":"Desclée De Brouwer","publisher-place":"Bruxelles","event-place":"Bruxelles","shortTitle":"The Liturgy of Life","author":[{"family":"Corriveau","given":"Raymond"}],"issued":{"year":1970}},"locator":"170"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Raymond Corriveau, The Liturgy of Life: A Study of the Ethical Thought of St. Paul in His Letters to the Early Christian Communities (Bruxelles: Desclée De Brouwer, 1970), 170;<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>quoted in <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"u6WG0dq9","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Timothy M Brunk, \\uc0\\u8220{}A Holy and Living Sacrifice,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Liturgical Ministry\\i0{} 18, no. 2 (2009): 60.}","plainCitation":"Timothy M Brunk, “A Holy and Living Sacrifice,” Liturgical Ministry 18, no. 2 (2009): 60."},"citationItems":[{"id":266,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/25GP2DA3"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/25GP2DA3"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":266,"type":"article-journal","title":"A Holy and Living Sacrifice","container-title":"Liturgical Ministry","page":"59-67","volume":"18","issue":"2","author":[{"family":"Brunk","given":"Timothy M"}],"issued":{"year":2009},"page-first":"59"},"locator":"60"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Timothy M. Brunk, “A Holy and Living Sacrifice,” Liturgical Ministry 18, no. 2 (2009): 60.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–> Origen wrote: “Paul says that the sacrifice is living because it has eternal life in it, which is Christ…it [is] holy because the Holy Spirit dwells in it;” <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"txPECTZE","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Bray, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 305.}","plainCitation":"Bray, Romans, 305."},"citationItems":[{"id":75,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/B6X24ZID"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/B6X24ZID"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":75,"type":"book","title":"Romans","collection-number":"Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture: New Testament VI","publisher":"InterVarsity Press","publisher-place":"Downers Grove, IL","event-place":"Downers Grove, IL","ISBN":"083081487","editor":[{"family":"Bray","given":"Gerald"}],"issued":{"year":1998}},"locator":"305"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Bray, Romans, 305.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>Cf. also <!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"hF38IJPO","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Cranfield, \\i Romans\\i0{}, 2:600.}","plainCitation":"Cranfield, Romans, 2:600."},"citationItems":[{"id":322,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/ASN7Q7IJ"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":322,"type":"book","title":"A Critical and Exegetical Commentary on the Epistle to the Romans","collection-title":"The International Critical Commentary","collection-number":"32","publisher":"Clark","publisher-place":"Edinburgh","volume":"2","number-of-volumes":"2","event-place":"Edinburgh","ISBN":"0567050408","call-number":"BS 491 .I6 1975 v.32","shortTitle":"Romans","author":[{"family":"Cranfield","given":"C. E. B"}],"issued":{"year":1980}},"locator":"600"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Cranfield, Romans, 2:600.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[xiii]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"Fn6QbB8r","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf E. Krentz, \\uc0\\u8220{}The Sense of Senseless Oxymora,\\uc0\\u8221{} \\i Currents in Theology and Mission\\i0{} 28, no. 6 (2001): 581\\uc0\\u8211{}582.}","plainCitation":"E. Krentz, “The Sense of Senseless Oxymora,” Currents in Theology and Mission 28, no. 6 (2001): 581–582."},"citationItems":[{"id":257,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XGNH5H3Q"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XGNH5H3Q"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":257,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Sense of Senseless Oxymora","container-title":"Currents in Theology and Mission","page":"577-584","volume":"28","issue":"6","abstract":"After discussing definitions of ‘oxymoron,’ the article considers examples of this figure of speech in Paul’s letters under four headings: oxymora related to faith and law (Rom 4:5; 5:6; 1:5; etc.), oxymora related to Christian activity (Rom 12:1-2), oxymora and the Spirit (1 Cor 12:1; 15:44), and concluding oxymora (1 Cor 4:12; 2 Cor 3:3).-D.J.H. Abstract Number: NTA46-2002-2-1005","author":[{"family":"Krentz","given":"E."}],"issued":{"year":2001},"page-first":"577"},"locator":"581-582"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>E. Krentz, “The Sense of Senseless Oxymora,” Currents in Theology and Mission 28, no. 6 (2001): 581–582.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[xiv]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"35nTBM9w","properties":{"formattedCitation":"Ibid., 28:582.","plainCitation":"Ibid., 28:582."},"citationItems":[{"id":257,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XGNH5H3Q"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/XGNH5H3Q"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":257,"type":"article-journal","title":"The Sense of Senseless Oxymora","container-title":"Currents in Theology and Mission","page":"577-584","volume":"28","issue":"6","abstract":"After discussing definitions of ‘oxymoron,’ the article considers examples of this figure of speech in Paul’s letters under four headings: oxymora related to faith and law (Rom 4:5; 5:6; 1:5; etc.), oxymora related to Christian activity (Rom 12:1-2), oxymora and the Spirit (1 Cor 12:1; 15:44), and concluding oxymora (1 Cor 4:12; 2 Cor 3:3).-D.J.H. Abstract Number: NTA46-2002-2-1005","author":[{"family":"Krentz","given":"E."}],"issued":{"year":2001},"page-first":"577"},"locator":"582"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Ibid., 28:582.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>
[xv]<!–[if supportFields]> ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"2l86fDmF","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf Wilckens, \\i Der Brief an die R\\uc0\\u246{}mer (12-16)\\i0{}, 4.}","plainCitation":"Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 4."},"citationItems":[{"id":396,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"uri&quot;:["http://zotero.org/users/700505/items/5V2HGEP8"%5D,"itemData&quot;:{"id":396,"type":"book","title":"Der Brief an die Römer (12-16)","publisher":"Benziger","publisher-place":"Zürich","edition":"3","event-place":"Zürich","ISBN":"354523103","author":[{"family":"Wilckens","given":"Ulrich"}],"issued":{"year":1997}},"locator":"4"}],"schema":"https://github.com/citation-style-language/schema/raw/master/csl-citation.json&quot;} <![endif]–>Wilckens, Der Brief an die Römer (12-16), 4.<!–[if supportFields]><![endif]–>

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